28 May 2015

Why did sand fall out of this old book?

"Today I looked at a handwritten account book from 1717. It listed a series of expenses paid by the city of Leiden (the Dutch city where I live) to various suppliers - of books, papers, pens. Being a medieval book historian, any source made after 1500 is alien. Because I am used to handling parchment books, it was odd to handle a book that was made out of paper - and a lot of it, for that matter. Also new to me was the fact that related materials were held together by needles and to see dozens of rare actual receipts, small slips that were crossed out when paid. The biggest surprise, however, was the material that came falling out of the account book: sand..."
Some readers here will already know the explanation for the sand; others can find the answer at Erik Kwakkel.

"Choreography" doesn't refer just to dancing

"Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequences of movements of physical bodies (or their depictions) in which motion, form, or both are specified...

Choreography is used in a variety of fields, including cheerleading, cinematography, gymnastics, fashion shows, ice skating, marching band, show choir, theatre, synchronized swimming, video game production and animated art...

The word choreography literally means "dance-writing" from the Greek words "χορεία" (circular dance, see choreia) and "γραφή" (writing). It first appeared in the American English dictionary in the 1950s..."

Rise of the Amish

Via the Data is Beautiful subreddit.

Children should read 1,000 books before kindergarten

That's the idea behind a new reading challenge being sponsored by our local library, as part of a nationwide program.

This painting just sold for $179,300,000 - updated

There are a lot of things a person could do with 179 million dollars.

Via BoingBoing.

Addendum:  A New York television station (MyFoxNY) felt it necessary to perform a digital mastectomy on the image when they broadcast the story:

Don't pour water on a grease or oil fire

The water sinks below the burning oil, vaporizes, and then... the slo-mo shows the result.


From a photo gallery at The Guardian.

23 May 2015


During the Great Depression in the United States, and again during WWII, many families in the United States coped with shortages by making clothing out of used feedsacks.  Some of the feed companies responded by printing decorative patterns on the sacks.  The photos in today's divertimento come from a large gallery at imgur (but I've been unable to TinEye the original source and would appreciate any info in order to give proper credit).  There is a review of this subject at Etsy,

Even Australians can't understand a strong Australian accent. (brief funny video at the link).

A map showing a state-by-state relative frequency of the use of "the n-word" in Google searches.  States with "much more than average" use are not where you might expect...

A gif of an impressive team juggling routine.

How to block an earworm.  "The data support a link between articulatory motor programming and the appearance in consciousness of both voluntary and unwanted musical recollections."

According to the QI elves, "in 1965 a US Senate Committee predicted that by the year 2000 the average working week would be 14 hours." (sourced from The Atlantic)

It is not mandatory for a chrysalis to be kept upright (or suspended) for a butterfly to develop normally - as long as the newly eclosed butterfly can climb somewhere to suspend his/her wings after emergence.  I was delighted to read this, because my wife and I have spent hours trying to tie the cremasters of errant chrysalises to a hanging position.

 "Alberta just elected a bunch of Keystone XL-hating socialists into office."

Donkey milk (and salmon hatchery water) are being touted as beauty ingredients:  "...this milk 'soothes sensitive skin and eczema,' thanks to its high protein and vitamin content."

"Rosen, 73, began his philanthropic efforts by paying for day care for parents in Tangelo Park, a community of about 3,000 people. When those children reached high school, he created a scholarship program in which he offered to pay free tuition to Florida state colleges for any students in the neighborhood.  In the two decades since starting the programs, Rosen has donated nearly $10 million, and the results have been remarkable. The high school graduation rate is now nearly 100 percent, and some property values have quadrupled. The crime rate has been cut in half, according to a study by the University of Central Florida."

"Like a dog that returns to his vomit is a fool who repeats his folly."  At this moment I can't remember why I bookmarked that phrase from Proverbs 26:11.  It was relevant to something.   Perhaps politics.

A dashpot is "a mechanical device, a damper which resists motion via viscous friction."  That's the word for the doohickey that lets a door close slowly rather than slamming shut.  You learn something every day.  They are also common components of automobile shock absorbers.

How to tie your running/walking/hiking shoes to prevent your heel from slipping (use those extra two holes to make a "lace lock.")

"What's wrong with electric bicycles." (batteries, motors, mass distribution...)

A woman who flew Spitfires in WWII has an opportunity to do so again.  At age 92.  (video of a very happy lady at the link)

"The ten biggest lies you've been told about the Trans-Pacific Partnership."  There is another story at Rolling Stone explaining why Elizabeth Warren and many Democrats are opposing President Obama and the Republicans on this matter: "TPP could empower big companies to challenge the laws of sovereign governments  — including tough U.S. environmental regulations — through trade tribunals. The so-called "investor-state dispute settlement mechanism" could put taxpayers on the hook for paying out billions to multinational corporations who successfully make their case before trade arbitrators. "The only winners will be multinational corporations," Warren has written."

"Great minds discuss ideas.  Average minds discuss events.  Small minds discuss people."  A quote attributed to Eleanor Roosevelt.

Pink Floyd's Roger Waters writes an open letter to Dionne Warwick: “You are showing yourself to be profoundly ignorant of what has happened in Palestine since 1947.″

 The Telegraph offers what they call "the world's hardest geography quiz" (about obscure world capital cities).  I only scored 60% (9/15).

Amazing gif of what can happen when a lithium phone battery is punctured (for discussion scroll down in this Reddit thread).

"Brontology" is the study of... (if you don't know, try to remember the etymology of "brontosaurus.")

The Soviet Union developed "spy dust" for tracking people.  "...powder containing both luminol and a substance called nitrophenyl pentadien (NPPD) had been applied to doorknobs, the floor mats of cars, and other surfaces that Americans living in Moscow had touched. They would then track or smear the substance over every surface they subsequently touched."

There is a medical entity colloquially referred to as "bicyclist's vulva" (explicit photo at the British Medical Journal).  Interestingly it is not simple edema, but rather lymphedema.

Photos of fifteen celebrities when they were cheerleaders in school.

A "vindshield viper."

Showerthought for the day:  "Vampires are pretty well groomed considering they did it all without a mirror."

21 May 2015

People may sniff their hands for "chemosignals"

Why do people shake hands? A new Weizmann Institute study suggests one of the reasons for this ancient custom may be to check out each other’s odors. Even if we are not consciously aware of this, handshaking may provide people with a socially acceptable way of communicating via the sense of smell.

Not only do people often sniff their own hands, but they do so for a much longer time after shaking someone else’s hand, the study has found. As reported today in the journal eLife, the number of seconds the subjects spent sniffing their own right hand more than doubled after an  experimenter greeted them with a handshake...
Next, to explore the potential role of handshakes in communicating odors, the scientists used covert cameras to film some 280 volunteers before and after they were greeted by an experimenter, who either shook their hand or didn’t. The researchers found that after shaking hands with an experimenter of the same gender, subjects more than doubled the time they later spent sniffing their own right hand (the shaking one). In contrast, after shaking hands with an experimenter of the opposite gender, subjects increased the sniffing of their own left hand (the non-shaking one). “The sense of smell plays a particularly important role in interactions within gender, not only across gender as commonly assumed,” Frumin says.
At least we're more subtle than dogs.  More information here

"In the long run..."

Site-spoofing online reservation systems

As reported in the Washington Post:
The hotel industry... recently asked the Department of Justice to investigate travel sites that are “trying to pass themselves off as the actual hotel.”..

At best, these reservations are simply made on behalf of a third party instead of by the hotel and may have additional restrictions or booking fees. But at worst, they may be completely bogus bookings that won’t be recognized by a property.

Pinpointing the problem is easy, but a solution isn’t. It turns out the fake sites operate outside the country and can be difficult to identify as fraudulent.  Who are these companies? There are thousands of them, according to AH&LA, and they go by names like Reservationcounter.com, Reservationdesk.com and Hotelsone.com...

One of the most enduring “wrong site” examples is the National Park Reservations site, which is sometimes confused with the National Park Service site by consumers. It isn’t affiliated with the national parks, a fact that it now clearly discloses on its front page, and it charges a fee for reservations made through the site. It’s the first result on Google for a “national park reservation” search, but the site most people actually want is NPS.gov (go to “Find a Park”), which doesn’t have the fees.
More at the link.

The shortest scientific paper ever published

In keeping with the subject matter, I'll add no comments.

Via Real Clear Science and the New Shelton 'wet/dry.

Argentinian public service announcement

20 May 2015

Claims for "the face of Shakespeare" in the frontispiece of a botany book - updated

Excerpts from an interesting report in The Guardian:
The botanist and historian Mark Griffiths on Tuesday claimed that he had discovered what he firmly believes is the only demonstrably authentic portrait of Shakespeare made in his lifetime.

He argues that an engraving on the title page of a 400-year-old book about plants contains four identifiable figures - one of whom is the Bard aged 33 looking very different from the round-faced bald man we know from the First Folio of his collected works...

The work by William Rogers, England’s first great exponent of copperplate engraving, is on the title page of a groundbreaking 1598 book, The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes, by the horticulturist John Gerard.

It is full of elaborate decorative devices, flowers and symbols which surround four male figures, who had generally been assumed to be allegorical.

Griffiths, in the course of writing a book about Gerard, decided to discover who the men might be. He had to crack an elaborate Tudor code of rebuses, ciphers, heraldic motifs and symbolic flowers, which were all clues pointing to the men’s identities.

The relatively easy ones were Gerard himself, the renowned Flemish botanist Rembert Dodoens and Queen Elizabeth’s chief minister and closest adviser Lord Burghley, who was Gerard’s patron. That left the tricky fourth man, bottom right...
This claim has been disputed and childishly mocked ("So apparently Shakespeare went around in fancy dress holding a fritillary in one hand and a cob of corn in the other.") by various Shakespeare scholars.

What fascinates me is the juxtaposition of the images of Shakespeare and Lord Burghley:
Griffiths believes Shakespeare was given his literary start by Burghley, the most powerful man in the country and that he became almost a political propagandist for him.

If you accept that theory, then Shakespeare would have moved in the same circles as Gerard, as both men had Burghley to thank for their careers.

Griffiths said his theory was that Shakespeare helped Gerard with Greek and Latin translations in the book and acted as a kind of script doctor. So the four men are the writer himself, his patron, his inspiration (Dodoens) and his literary adviser.
"...the identification of Gerard, Burghley and Dodoens was straightforward because they look like existing portraits."
Lord Burghley was William Cecil, the chief advisor and spymaster for Queen Elizabeth, inarguably one of the most prominent, educated, and influential men of his time.  He was known as a book-lover, and his home contained one of the premier private libraries of Elizabethan England.  In 1562 John de Vere, the 16th Earl of Oxford died; his son became a royal ward of the Queen and was placed in the household of William Cecil.  That 12-year-old boy was Edward de Vere, who would have been in his 30s when this herbal was published.

Addendum:  Here is the rebus under the figure in the frontispiece reputed to be Shakespeare:

From the full herbal, which can be viewed fulltext online at The Folger Shakespeare Library.  As noted at the Guardian link, Griffiths read the rebus as "In Elizabethan times, people would have used the Latin word “quater” as a slang term for a four in dice and cards. Put an e on the end and it becomes quatere, which is the infinitive of the Latin verb quatior, meaning shake."

Addendum:  Just for fun, I made a mashup of the face in the herbal with the "Hilliard miniature," previously claimed to be a portrait of Shakespeare:

I flipped the latter left-right to facilitate comparison.  Note also that the laurel wreath on the head of the left figure is a traditional item designating a poet.

I note that an article in The Spectator suggests that the face in the herbal could represent Sir Walter Raleigh.
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